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Ukhwah Islamiyyah

Turkey & Ottomans

It was the month of Rajab the Khilafah came to an end in Turkey. Various individuals in post-Ottoman Turkey have attempted to wipe its history away, but Turkey under the Ottoman's was the world superpower for centuries - this will remain the history of Turkey, whatever its future course.

The Ottoman's were one of the many bands of Turkmen horsemen who began to come into the Islamic lands as a result of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century. These Turkmen warriors, who had converted to Islam, were sent to the frontiers of the state by the Seljuks, who themselves were of Turkish origin. They had excellent fighting skills and zeal, which the Seljuks wanted them to apply along the frontier with the Byzantines. The house of Uthman proved to be one of the most successful of these bands, taking many towns and villages from the control of the Byzantines, they then unified the other ghazis, under their banner, brought the lands surrounding Constantinople under Islam, culminating in the capture of Byzantine Empire capital - Constantinople in 1453.

The Uthmani's then swept through the Balkans and Eastern Europe in spectacular fashion. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387. In 1389, the kings of Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Hungary attacked the Uthmani's but Sultan Murad I crushed them at Kosovo, which shocked Europe. In 1396, the whole of Europe including French and German armies fought against Sultan Bayazid Yaldram at Nicopolis but were comprehensively defeated and 20 rulers and dignitaries were brought to the Khaleefah's court as the captives. Sultan Bayazid had annexed all the territory from Bosnia to Danube. He had also conquered Greece (Athens) in 1398.

Before Suleiman al Qanooni's reign came to an end in 1566 he had expanded the Islamic frontiers well into Eastern Europe bringing Belgrade the capital of Serbia under Islam as well as regaining the Greek island of Rhodes. He had defeated Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia and brought most of Hungary under Islamic authority. By 1578 Georgia and what is today Romania was under Islam. Before the beginning of the 17th century the Ottoman's had brought Southern Italy, Hungary, Austria, Romania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Malta, Cyprus, Croatia, Ukraine, the Canary Islands, parts of Iceland and the largest island of the Bristol waters in England, UK - Lundy under Islamic authority. Such was the perceived threat of the Uthmani Khilafah under the reign of Suleiman al Qanooni that ambassador Busbecq of the Austrian monarch Ferdinand I warned of Europe's imminent conquest: "On [the Turks'] side are the resources of a mighty empire, strength unimpaired, habituation to victory, endurance of toil, unity, discipline, frugality and watchfulness... Can we doubt what the result will be?...When the Turks have settled with Persia, they will fly at our throats supported by the might of the whole East; how unprepared we are I dare not say."


The Ottoman's until the era of decline were hugely successful in integrating and amalgamating the different peoples in the new territories. The Uthmani's like their predecessors gave the non-Muslim populace in matters of marriage, faith and personal issues their own religious leaders. As a result, vast areas of the Balkans remained mostly Christian. The Eastern Orthodox Churches had a higher position in Uthmani Khilafah, mainly because the Patriarch resided in Istanbul and was an officer of the Khilafah.

Sultan Mehmed II allowed the local Christians to reside in Constantinople after conquering the city in 1453, and to retain their institutions such as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate. In 1461 Sultan Mehmed II established the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople. Previously, the Byzantines considered the Armenian Church as heretical and thus did not allow them to build churches inside the walls of Constantinople. In 1492, when the Muslims and Jews were expelled from Spain during the Spanish Inquisition, Sultan Bayezid II sent his fleet to save them and granted the refugees the right to settle in the Khilafah. Thomas Arnold confirmed in his study of the spread of Islam: "though the Greeks were numerically superior to the Turks in all the European provinces of the Empire, the religious toleration thus granted them, and the protection of life and property they enjoyed, soon reconciled them to the change of masters and led them to prefer the domination of the Sultan to that of any Christian power."

The Ottoman's influence internationally was such that many of the European powers turned to the Ottoman's for help. The French king Francis I was captured at the battle of Pavia in 1525. France felt humiliated by the capture of her king but her army was unable to rescue him from captivity. She made recourse to the Islamic Khilafah state, under the Ottoman's at that time, and she sent a messenger on behalf of the king of France on 6th December 1525 seeking help from the Islamic State. The messenger met the Uthmani Khaleef Sulayman al-Qanooni who responded to his call. Sulayman gave the messenger a letter which read: "we have received the letter delivered by your messenger, and in which you stated that your enemy has attacked your country and you are imprisoned and seek our help in respect to securing your release. We have answered your request so be at ease and do not worry". The Khilafah state used its international weight and military power to rescue the king of France and made an effective contribution towards his release. The Khaleef of the Muslims helped France without compensation, without occupying a part of France or colonising any region of France in return. Rather he did the action as an act of goodwill.

In 1783 the first US navy boat started to sail in international waters and within two years was captured by the Ottoman navy near Algeria. In 1793 12 more US navy boats were captured. In March 1794 the US Congress authorized President Washington to spend up to 700 000 gold coins to build strong steel boats that would resist the Uthmani navy. Just a year later the US signed the Barbary Treaty to resolve the Ottoman threat.

Barbary, was the term for the North African wilaya's of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, under the rule of the Ottomans.

The terms of the treaty were:

1. The treaty will cost the US a one off payment of $992,463
2. The American ships captured would be returned and the American Navy was to be given permission to sail in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
3. In return, the American government would pay $642 000 in equivalent gold.
4. The US would also pay an annual tax (tribute) of $12 000 in gold. The annual tribute would be calculated according to the Islamic calendar and not the Christian calendar.
5. $585,000 would be paid for the ransom of the captured American sailors.
6. A state of the art steel ship would be constructed and delivered to the Uthmani's, built in the US with all costs borne by the US in return for privileges. (The costs of masts, Yards, and heavy planks, were very costly and so difficult to procure, and then so exceedingly expensive to transport. Once delivered the US had actually paid thirty times their estimated price in the stipulations).

The treaty was written in Turkish and signed by President Washington, This is the only American legal document to ever have been concluded in a foreign language and the only treaty the Americans have ever signed that agrees to pay annual tax to another nation. This treaty continued until the Khilafah was abolished.

Turkey Today

Ever since the destruction of the Khilafah in 1924, Turkey has become a nation with no influence in the world. Turkey has been used by the world's powers to achieve their own interests. Turkey joined NATO and today Turkey provides the most troops after the US to the security organisation that protecting US interests during the cold war.

Whilst most of Turkey's history consists of menacing Europe, today is trying all it can to join the European Union. Whilst Turkey has reforming in the face of EU demands. The EU continues to reiterate that Turkey should be given second class membership.

Turkey has suffered an economic crisis once every decade since the end of the Khilafah, it has used each crisis to bring in more and more reforms in order align the nation to the global market, with little success.

The Turkey of today is a far cry from the international position the Ottoman's had. Today Turkey is being described by many thinkers as a resurgent nation, but like it recent history Turkey continues to protect the interests of other nations. Whilst in the past Turkey menaced Europe. Many accepted it was a matter of time when the Ottoman janissaries would march across Europe, Jews and many other minorities welcomed the Ottoman's due to the treatment they received regarding there faith. Turkey should learn from its history.
Posted on 12:42 PM by Kamarol Azli Bahari and filed under | 2 Comments »

Iran Juga Tunduk Dan Takut Kepada Thagut. Di manakah Kemuliaan Umat Islam?

Iran batal rejam wanita kerana zina

LONDON: Iran membuat keputusan untuk tidak melaksanakan hukuman merejam dengan batu hingga mati selepas didapati bersalah atas tuduhan berzina berikutan kritikan antarabangsa.
“Kedutaan republik Islam itu di London mengeluarkan kenyataan menyebut ‘berdasarkan maklumat pihak berkuasa perundangan di Iran, Sakineh Mohammadi-Ashtiani tidak akan direjam dengan batu,” lapor akhbar The Times. Tetapi kenyataan itu tidak menyebut sama ada wanita berusia 43 tahun itu akan dibebaskan atau dikenakan hukuman digantung, lapor akhbar terbabit. Kumpulan hak asasi antarabangsa, Amnesty International berkata, Sakineh didapati bersalah pada 2006 atau 2007 dan sebelum ini dihukum 99 sebatan.

Amerika Syarikat dan Britain mengutuk hukuman rejam berkenaan. Setiausaha Luar British, Wiliam Hague, kelmarin menyifatkan hukuman itu sebagai ‘ketinggalan’ dan menyifatkan ia sebagai menjijikkan dan menggemparkan seluruh dunia. “Hukuman rejam itu ketinggalan dan tidak dapat diterima kini dan jika terus digunakan di Iran bercanggah dengan hak asasi kemanusiaan,” katanya. – AFP

Berita Harian: 20/07/10

Iran Juga Tunduk Dan Takut Kepada Thagut. Di manakah Kemuliaan Umat Islam?

Lihatlah bagaimana kuffar Barat, Amerika dan Britain begitu berani menghina hukuman rejam yang dijatuhkan oleh mahkamah Iran ke atas seorang wanita yang bernama Sakineh Mohammadi-Ashtiani. Barat telah menggunakan segala bentuk ruang dan peluang yang mereka miliki untuk terus cuba memadamkan cahaya Allah SWT: “Mereka berkehendak memadamkan cahaya (agama) Allah dengan mulut (ucapan- ucapan) mereka, dan Allah tidak menghendaki selain menyempurnakan cahayaNya, walaupun orang-orang yang kafir tidak menyukai”. [TMQ At Taubah (9) : 32].

Dilaporkan bahawa Setiausaha Luar British, Wiliam Hague, menyifatkan hukuman itu sebagai ‘ketinggalan’ dan menyifatkan ia sebagai menjijikkan dan menggemparkan seluruh dunia. “Hukuman rejam itu ketinggalan dan tidak dapat diterima kini dan jika terus digunakan di Iran bercanggah dengan hak asasi kemanusiaan,”. Seperti kebiasaan, pihak kuffar Barat menggunakan senjata hak asasi manusia untuk melakukan propaganda bagi menyerang Islam. Hanya dengan kritikan dan propaganda yang dimainkan oleh badan kufur antarabangsa itu, nampaknya Iran sebagai sebuah negara yang mendakwa kononnya sebagai negara Islam turut tunduk kepada desakan thagut antarabangsa. Iran yang selama ini, melalui Presidennya Mahmoud Ahmadinejad yang begitu lantang mengkritik Amerika sebagai pengganas global rupa-rupanya takut dan kecut kepada gertakan Barat ibarat tikus takutkan kucing.

Yakinlah wahai umat Islam bahawa hanya Khilafah sahajalah yang bersedia dan berani untuk menerapkan hukum Islam dalam kehidupan individu, masyarakat mahupun negara. Ketahuilah bahawa hanya satu-satunya institusi pemerintahan yang takut kepada Allah SWTsemata-mata dan bukan kepada yang lainnya hanyalah Khilafah. Telusurilah sejarah ketegasan dan keberanian Rasulullah SAW, Khalifah Mu’tasim, Sultan Abdul Hamid dan lain-lainnya dalam menerap dan menjunjung titah perintah Allah SWT. Namun malangnya, hari ini para pemimpin umat Islam para pemimpin yang takut, bacul, hipokrit dan kecut kepada syaitan besar Amerika dan Britain. Sedangkan seorang Muslim, termasuk para pemimpinnya tidak seharusnya takut kepada celaan orang-orang yang mencela dan wajib bagi umat Islam itu menyalurkan rasa ketakutan mereka semata-mata kepada Allah SWT.

Wahai para pemimpin Iran apakah kamu tidak pernah mendengar firman Allah SWT ini? “Kerana itu janganlah kamu takut kepada manusia, (tetapi) takutlah kepada-Ku. dan janganlah kamu menukar ayat-ayat-Ku dengan harga yang sedikit. Barangsiapa yang tidak memutuskan menurut apa yang diturunkan Allah, maka mereka itu adalah orang-orang yang kafir”. [TMQ Al Maa-idah (5) : 44].
Posted on 10:49 AM by Kamarol Azli Bahari and filed under | 0 Comments »

Masjid Kini Sudah Hilang Fungsi Sebenarnya Tanpa Khilafah

Apa yang ada pada masjid terbesar tanpa naungan negara Khilafah?

Sesetengah umat Islam mempunyai pendapat bahawa pembinaan dan pencantikkan masjid menjadi bukti teguhnya Islam di sesebuah negara, sehingga para pelancong asing yang melawat negara tersebut tidak ketinggalan menziariahi masjid-masjid yang pembinaannya menelan berjuta-juta ringgit.

Namun begitu, secara realitinya, fungsi masjid di zaman ini telah disempitkan hanya kepada amalan ibadat. Di kebanyakan masjid kita melihat kaum Muslimin dilarang berbincang tentang permasalahan umat Islam. Sama sepertimana penganut agama Kristian yang menunaikan ibadat mereka di dalam gereja atau penganut agama Yahudi beribadat di dalam biara mereka, umat Islam sekarang ini berbangga dengan masjid-masjid yang menelan berjuta-juta ringgit yang dihiasi dengan berbagai corak dan lambang seolah-olah kebesaran, keagungan dan identiti umat Islam terletak pada struktur dan kecantikan corak yang terdapat pada masjid tersebut. Namun amat menyedihkan apabila di tempat-tempat di mana masjid-masjid ini dibina, hukum shara’ yang menjadi sepatutnya menjadi identiti umat Islam dan bukti perlaksanaan Islam di kawasan tersebut, dilupakan. Abu Daud meriwayatkan bahawa Ibnu Abbas telah mengatakan bahawa Rasulullah SAW bersabda

“Aku tidak diarahkan untuk menghiasi masjid. Dan kamu akan menghiasi masjid-masjid sebagaimana kaum Yahudi dan Nasrani”. Dan dari Anas bin Malik r.a. bahawasanya Rasulullah SAW bersabda: "Tidak berlaku (terjadi) hari Qiamat sehingga umat ku bermegah-megah (dengan binaan) masjid" [H.R. Abu Daud)]

Masjid yang pertama didirikan oleh Rasulullah SAW di Madinah hanya dibina dengan menggunakan pelepah tamar sahaja. Namun begitu, masjid tersebut menepati fungsinya sebagai sebuah masjid di dalam Islam. Masjid yang dibina oleh Rasulullah (SAW) di Daulah Islam di Madinah itu yang tidak menelan berjuta-juta ringgit sepertimana masjid sekarang dengan hiasan dan corak yang bermacam-macam, tetapi menjadi pusat di mana Rasulullah (SAW) dan para sahabatnya merancang perluasan dakwah Islam di seluruh tanah Arab dan sentiasa menjadi pusat untuk membincangkan dan memerhatikan keadaan terkini dan permasalahan umat Islam.

Hanya di dalam Daulah Khilafah sahaja peranan masjid yang sebenarnya dapat dikembalikan, di mana nama Allah dan Hukum Allah diperjuangkan dan permasalahan umat Islam dapat dibincangkan dan diperhatikan. Masjid bukan sahaja bukan sahaja menjadi tempat menunaikan amal ibadat khusus, namun ia merupakan pusat aktiviti sosio-politik kaum Muslimin.

Marilah kita sama-sama memperingati diri kita dengan amaran daripada Hadis Rasulullah berkenaan dengan peristiwa-peristiwa buruk yang akan menimpa umat Islam. Daripada Ali bin Abi Thalib r.a. berkata: Telah bersabda Rasulullah SAW;

"Sudah hampir sampai suatu masa di mana tidak tinggal lagi daripada Islam ini kecuali hanya namanya, dan tidak tinggal daripada Al-Quran itu kecuali hanya tulisannya. Masjid-masjid tersergam indah, tetapi ia kosong daripada hidayah. Ulama yang ada adalah sejahat-jahat makhluk yang ada di bawah naungan langit. Dari mereka berpunca fitnah, dan kepada mereka fitnah ini akan kembali".[H.R. al-Baihaqi]

Wa Allahu A’lam
Posted on 1:33 PM by Kamarol Azli Bahari and filed under | 0 Comments »



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